PASSIVE VOICE

Posted by admin On Aralık - 27 - 2010

Edilgen yapıları genellikle hareketi yapan kişiden çok, eylemin kendisi önemli olduğunda kullanırız. Deney sonuçları, raporlar ve bir iş veya durum ile ilgili gözlemler genellikle edilgen yapılar kullanılarak ifade edilir. Benzer bir şekilde kendimiz deneyimlemeyeceğimiz ya da yapmayacağımız ancak bilgi verme amaçlı anlatılan ya da aktarılan süreçleri (informational process) anlatırken de edilgen cümleler kullanılır. Örneğin, fabrikada arabaların nasıl yapıldığı ile ilgili bir belgeselin anlatım dili veya bir kabilenin bir seremoniye nasıl hazırlandığı ile ilgili bir okuma parçasının dili genellikle edilgen yapılardan oluşur.

En temelde passive (edilgen) yapıların mantığı aşağıda gösterildiği gibidir.

örnek: This factory has produced milk since the early days of the war. (active)

Milk has been produced in this factory since the early days of the war. (passive)

In the 1970s, scientists conducted many experiments to solve the mystery of dreams.

(active)

In the 1970s, many experiments were conducted to solve the mystery of dreams. (passive)

Kimi zaman cümlenin edilgen yapıya dönüşebilecek iki nesnesi olur. (direct object and indirect object) Böyle bir durum söz konusu olduğunda hangi nesneyi vurgulamak istiyorsak bu nesneyi edilgen cümlede özne konumunda kullanırız.

örnek: Timothy gave a present to Jane for her birthday. (active)

A present was given to Jane for her birthday. (passive)

Jane was given a present for her birthday. (passive)

The teacher taught many useful things to her students. (active)

Many useful things were taught to the students. (passive)

The students were taught many useful things. (passive)

Aşağıda ki tablo her bir zaman (tense) için aktif ve edilgen dönüşümleri göstermektedir.

TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE

simple present produces am/is/are produced

present continuous is/are producing am/is/are being produced

present perfect have/has produced have/has been produced

present perfect continuous have/has been producing —

simple past produced was/were produced

past continuous was/were producing was/were being produced

past perfect had produced had been produced

past perfect continuous had been producing –

future simple will produce will be produced

am/is/are going to produce am/is/are going to be produced

future continuous will be producing –

future perfect will have produced will have been produced

future perfect continuous will have been producing –

-Modal fiilerin passive (edilgen) yapılara dönüşümleri aşağıdaki gibidir.

PASSIVE FORM OF PRESENT MODALS: VERB + BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

PASSIVE FORM OF PAST MODALS: VERB + HAVE BEEN + PAST PARTICIPLE

örnek: Students must hand in the homework before the deadline. (necessity)

The homework must be handed in before the deadline.

They must have cleaned the car earlier than we had expected. (probability)

The car must have been cleaned earlier than we had expected.

You should have told her the truth, so she has got every right to be angry with you. (advise)

She should have been told the truth, so she has got every right to be angry with you.

When my grandfather was young, he could repair any car by the help of his skillful hands.

When my grandfather was young, any car could be repaired by the help of his skillful hands.

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